Native populations declined throughout the 19th century as a result of increasing contact with non-native populations. With expanding settlement and resource exploitation came devastating epidemics of influenza, smallpox, cholera, measles, and scarlet fever, particularly in the western and northern frontier regions of the country.

Area units: 1901 provincial, territorial and district boundaries are shown.
Data units: Circles shown are proportional to the size of the native population in that province or territory.