Authors and Sources


The Great War, 1914-1918 (Volume III, Plate 26; Concise Plate 40)
CHRISTOPHER A. SHARPE Department of Geography, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Research Assistant: Jessie Chisholm.


Enlistment and Military Installations in Canada, 1914-1919 (Map)

The data for Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) training camps and winter camps are combined; when they occur at the same place, only one camp is indicated. CEF includes 124,588 male recruits raised by the Military Service Act; it does not include 2,854 women who volunteered as nursing sisters. Eligible population is that of 1911.
Enlistment is shown by place of enlistment and does not include those who enlisted in the CEF in the United States (6 986) or the United Kingdom (3 079). Newfoundland enlistment was in the Royal Newfoundland Regiment, not the CEF.
There were 8,579 'aliens' interned in the camps, 5,417 of whom were civilians: 5,954 were Austro-Hungarian, 2,009 German, and 616 of other nationalities.

  • Canada. Census. 1911. Unpublished folio CXXXVI, Table 4
  • Canada. SP. 1919. No. 246, Department of Justice, 'Report of the Military Service Branch of the Ministry of Justice on the Operation of the Military Service Act, 1917'
  • Carter, David J. Behind Canadian Barbed Wire: Alien, Refugee and Prisoner of War Camps in Canada. Calgary: Tumbleweed Press, 1980. P 308
  • Duguid, Col. A.F. Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War, 1914-1919. Vol 1. Ottawa: King's Printer, 1938
  • National Archives of Canada. Militia Defence Records. RG 24. Vol 1842, Files GAQ 10-42, GAQ 10-44, GAQ 10- 47, Vol 1. Vol 1843, File GAQ 10-47E. Vol 1892, No. 109

  • Canadian Military Hospitals and Cemeteries in Europe, 1914-1919 (Map)
    Casualties and Medical-Care Facilities in Canada, 1914-1919 (Map)
    Enlistment and Casualties, 1914-1919 (Graph)

    The Canadian General Hospital (CGH) category includes eight stationary hospitals, smaller than general hospitals and originally set up as resting places on the line for casualties on their way back to base. Given the short lines of communications, they became small general hospitals. Some hospitals operated at various locations; in these cases the maximum capacity at the location where that maximum occurred was mapped. There are three exceptions where the maximum capacity was at Salonica, but the hospitals appear on the map in locations in England (Basingstoke, Hastings, and Liverpool) to which they were transferred in 1917 and 1918. Hospitals in Europe outside the map area: in Britain, Buxton (2 special), Kirkdale (1 CGH), Liverpool (1 CGH), Matlock Bath (1 convalescent); in France, Joinville (1 CGH), Champagnoles (1 Forestry Corps Hospital, FCH), La Joux/Jura (1 FCH), Gerardmer/Vosges (1 FCH).

  • Canada. Report of the Ministry: Overseas Military Forces of Canada. London, 1918
  • Canada. SP. 1917. No. 158. Not published
  • National Archives of Canada. G 24. Vol 1843, File GAQ 10-47E. Vol 1844, File GAQ 11-10
  • Nicholson, G.W.L. Seventy Years of Service: A History of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps. Ottawa: Borealis Press, 1977
  • Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire during the Great War. London: HMSO, 1922
  • Wood, Herbert Farlie, and John Swettenham. Silent Witnesses. Toronto: Hakkert, 1974

  • The Royal Newfoundland Regiment in St John's (Map)

  • Newfoundland. Department of Militia. Report. 1919,1920
  • Provincial Archives of Newfoundland. Regimental Rolls. 'Royal Newfoundland Regiment'
  • 'St John's, Nfld Plan.' 1914. Repr Oct 1925. Toronto and Montreal: Underwriters Survey Bureau

  • Victory Loan Campaigns, 1917-1918 (Graph)

    Data for per capita contributions for 1917 and 1918, combined, were graphed because these were the only years for which a provincial breakdown is available. Prior to the campaigns to enlist small investors (with subscriptions as low as $50), there were loans in 1915,1916, and 1917 to attract large-scale investment. These loans were supplemented by additional funds from New York but when the United States entered the war in Apr 1917, it became increasingly difficult for foreign nations to enter the New York market. Canada therefore had to rely on its own internal resources.

  • Canada. SP. 1919. No. 181. Not published
  • Canada Year Book. 1920
  • Hunt, M.S. Nova Scotia's Part in the Great War. Halifax, 1920
  • Hopkins, J. Castell. The Province of Ontario in the War: A Record of Government and People. Toronto: Warwick and Rutter, 1919
  • National Archives of Canada. Department of Finance Records. RG 19. Vol 588, File 155-1D. Vol 607, File 155-87-6. Vol 608, File 155-88-6

  • Canadian Patriotic Fund, 1914-1919 (Graph)

    Graph includes money paid into the Canadian Fund between Aug 1914 and 31 Mar 1919. Manitoba had a separate provincial fund which raised $6 315 209, of which $2 405 126 came from voluntary subscriptions. It disbursed $6 282 331. Newfoundland had its own patriotic fund which took in $122 706. There were also local funds in Ontario - Toronto and York, Lincoln County, Fort William, Preston, Kenora, Orillia -and one in Cumberland County, BC. There is some ambiguity about the patriotic fund in Vancouver and Victoria; these organizations refused to affiliate with the provincial organizations and it is unclear whether these two cities are included in the BC total.

  • Bray, R.M. 'Canadian Patriotic Response to the Great War.' PhD thesis, York University, 1977
  • Canada Year Book. 1920
  • Hopkins. The Province of Ontario in the War. 1919
  • Morris, Philip, ed. 'Canadian Patriotic Fund. A Record of Its Activities from 1914-1919.' nd
  • Newfoundland. Journals of the House of Assembly. 1920. 'Report of the Patriotic Fund'

  • Munitions Board Contracts, 1915-1919 (Graph - not online)

    Not included are investments made in munitions contracts in the United States ($130 123 000), the United Kingdom ($7 726 000), and Newfoundland ($261 000).

  • Carnegie, David. History of Munitions Supply in Canada 1914-1918. Toronto: Longmans, 1925 NAC. G 30. B4, Vol 36, 'Imperial Munitions Board Report'

  • Provincial share of manufacturing and war trade, 1915 (Graph - not online)

    The data are taken from the 1916 Postal Census of Manufactures which for 1915 'asked each manufacturer to report on such products of his establishment as he had reason to believe were destined for war purposes, whether supplied directly or indirectly.'

  • Canada. Department of Trade and Commerce. Census and Statistics Office. Postal Census of Manufactures. 1916

  • Casualty rates of selected battalions (Graph - not online)

  • Fetherstonhaugh, R.C. The 24th Battalion, C.E.F., Victoria Rifles of Canada, 1914-1919. Montreal: Gazette Printing Company, 1930
  • An Historical Sketch of the Seventy-Seventh Battalion Canadian Expeditionary Force. Ottawa: War Publications Ltd, 1926
  • McEvoy, Bernard, and Capt. A.H. Finley. A History of the 62nd Canadian Infantry Battalion: Seaforth Highlanders of Canada. Vancouver: Cowan and Brookhouse, 1920
  • McWilliams, James L., and R. James Steel. The Suicide Battalion. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1978
  • Murray, Col. W.W. The History of the 2nd Canadian Battalion (East. Ontario Regiment), Canadian Expeditionary Force in the Great War, 1914-1918. Ottawa: The Historical Committee, 2nd Battalion, CEF, 1947
  • National Archives of Canada. Reports of the Militia Department. 1919-20
  • Stevens, George Roy. A City Goes to War: 49th Infantry Battalion (Loyal Edmonton Regiment). Brampton: Charters, 1964

  • Military Service Act, 1917 (Graph - not online)

    The graph includes registration, call-up, and exemption from military service of all male British subjects, unmarried or widowed without children, aged 20-32 years. For Manitoba and Ontario the sum of the agricultural, medical, and occupational exemptions did not equal the total number of exemptions granted. Kenora District of Ontario had been included in the three Manitoba exemption categories but in the Ontario totals. The discrepancy was 1 997 and it was divided equally among the three categories; for the graph the data were subtracted from those of Manitoba and added to those of Ontario.

  • Canada. SP. 1919. No. 246. 'Report of the Director on the Operation of the Military Service Act, 1919' NAC. RG 24. Vol 1824. File GAQ 10-44, GAQ 10-47, Vol 1
  • Canada. Department of Militia and Defence. European War Memorandum No. 6. 1919

  • Revenue and public debt, 1900-1939 (Graph - not online)
    Taxes, 1915-1939 (Graph - not online)

    Canada Year Book. 1940