Authors and Sources


Native Population and Subsistence, 17th Century (Volume I, Plate 18; Concise Plate 3)
CONRAD E. HEIDENREICH Department of Geography, York University
J.V. WRIGHT Archaeological Survey of Canada, Canadian Museum of Civilization


Eastern Native Population, Early 17th Century (Map)

Early population data are meagre. The populations given here are estimates based on a few references to pre-epidemic populations. These references were transferred to other groups in similar environments with similar socioeconomic conditions.

Linguistic Families, 17th Century (Map)

This list is based on secondary sources with some adjustments in distribution indicated by primary sources.

Native Subsistence at European Contact, Ethnohistoric Data (Map)
Native Subsistence, 1000 CE to Contact, Archaeological Data (Map)

These maps are based on secondary sources with extensive adjustments according to earliest European observations.

  • Banfield, A.W.F. The Mammals of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981
  • Biggar, Henry P., ed. The Works of Samuel de Champlain. 6 vols. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1922-36
  • Handbook of North American Indians. Vol 6: Subarctic. Ed J. Helm. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1981
  • Handbook of North American Indians. Vol 15: Northeast. Ed E.G. Trigger. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1978
  • Jenness, D. The Indians of Canada, 7th ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977
  • NAC, NMC. Maps from the period 1600-60
  • Sagard, Gabriel (Théodat). Histoire du Canada et voyages que les Frères mineurs Recollets y ont faicts pour la conversion des infidelles ... 4 vols. Paris: Tross, 1866
  • Sagard, Gabriel (Théodat). The Long Journey to the Country of the Hurons. Ed. G.M. Wrong; trans H.H. Langton. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1939
  • Thwaites, R.G., ed. The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. 73 vols. Cleveland: Burrows Bros., 1896-1901
  • See also references to Cultural Sequences, 8000-4000BC (Vol I, pl 6) and The Battles for Quebec, 1759 and 1760 (Vol I, pl 43).