Authors and Sources


Eastern Canada, ca 1800 (Volume I, Plate 68; Volume II, Plate 4; Concise Plate 12)
R. COLE HARRIS Department of Geography, University of British Columbia
DAVID WOOD Department of Geography, York University


Population and Economy, ca 1800 (Map)

Population and Language in Eastern Canada, ca 1800 (Static Map)

The content of this plate has depended upon the expertise and advice of Conrad F. Heidenreich, Mario Lalancette, Victor P. Lytwyn, John Mannion, D. Wayne Moodie, and Graeme Wynn.

The data on settlement and the fisheries in Newfoundland are drawn from The Newfoundland Fishery, 18th Century, Trinity, 18th Century, and St John's (vol 1, pll 25-27) ; and from the Newfoundland census of 1797 (PRO, CO 194/40). The data of settlement and trade in the Maritimes are derived from Maritime Canada, Late 18th Century (vol 1, pl 32). The data on settlement and fisheries in the northern and western Gulf of St Lawrence are drawn from Exploitation of the Gulf of St Lawrence (vol 1, pl 54).

The population of Lower Canada is based on the estimate in Resettling the St Lawrence Valley (vol 1, pl 46). The distribution of settlement and the extent of cleared land in Lower Canada are derived from Joseph Bouchette, A Topographical Description of the Province of Lower Canada ... London: Faden 1815. The distribution of English speaking settlers in Quebec is a considered estimate as much as can be done until this matter is the subject of a specialized study. Fur routes are generalized and simplified, and are not intended to show exact locations. Nor does the plate attempt to show all trading posts (for a more comprehensive distribution of posts in much of this territory see Trading Posts, 1774-1821 (vol 1, pl 62)). The distribution of native people is derived from Native Canada, ca1820 (vol 1, pl 69), from sources mentioned in the notes for that plate The small native populations in the Canadian Shield cannot be usefully shown at the scale used on this plate and have been omitted.

Estimates of the size and distribution of population in Upper Canada are based on Lieutenant Governor Simcoe's correspondence (E.A. Cruikshank, ed, The Correspondence of Lt. Governor Simcoe, 5 vols [Toronto: Ontario Historical Society 1924]), the militia returns, and the civil secretary's papers (NAC, RG 5 B26). The following have been helpful: county histories; Robert Gourlay's Statistical Account of Upper Canada ... (London: Simpkin and Marshall, 1822), abridged and with an introduction by S.R. Mealing (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974); and the dates of township survey given in W.G. Dean and G.J. Matthews, Economic Atlas of Ontario (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969), pl 99. Data on trade in Upper Canada have been derived in part from Douglas McCalla, The "Loyalist" Economy of Upper Canada, 1784-1806 Histoire sociale , Social History 16 (1983): 279-304. William G. Dean prepared the information on roads and settled areas in the United States from Charles O. Paullin, Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States (Baltimore: 1 Hoen, 1932), pll 60E, 76C, 138J.