Canada is generally thought of as a country to which people came, but many have also departed. This chapter charts how this exit strategy took effect in the last part of the 19th century. Migration statistics were not actually recorded, so calculations based on the differences between expected and actual populations have been used to estimate intercensal net migrations (see Sources.)

The graph showing Migration Estimates, 1850s-1900s, illustrates that immigration exceeded emigration in the 1850s, but outflow was greater than inflow for every decade over the rest of the century. Because of a high rate of natural increase, however, Canada's population did not actually fall.

The interactive map: Migration, 1871-1891, shows migration rates for two different decades and allows comparison between the two. A background layer classifies the "type" of migration experienced in each area: Classic out-migration, urban/industrial in-migration, or frontier in-migration.

Canadian-Born in the United States, 1880 looks at how many born and bred Canadians were living in the States at this time, and which provinces they came from. In this interactive map, an additional layer shows which occupations many of these immigrant workers were pursuing, specifically in the Northeastern states.