Authors and Sources


Population Composition 1891-1961 (Volume III, Plate 4; Concise Plate 18)
DONALD CARTWRIGHT Geography, University of Western Ontario
MURDO MacPHERSON Historical Atlas of Canada, Toronto


Ethnic Origin: 1901; 1931; 1961 (Maps)

Since the 1901 and 1935 censuses of Newfoundland and Labrador gave only place of birth and not ethnic origin, Newfoundland is not included in 1901 and 1931. Graphs of cities specify ethnic groups of 0.4% or larger; graphs of provinces specify groups of 1.0% or more except 'other' which may be less than 1.0%.
  • Canada. Census. 1901: Vol 1, Table XI. 1931: Vol 2, Tables 32, 34. 1961: Vol 1, Pt 2, Tables 37, 38

    The Bilingual Belt, 1961 (Map)

    With the exception of Montréal, urban areas have been incorporated with the census subdivisions in which they are located. On the map adjacent census subdivisions with similar values and thus of the same category are amalgamated into a single unit. Individual subdivisions are shown only when they are of a different category from surrounding divisions.
  • Canada. Census. 1961. Vol 1, Pt 1, Table 7; Series SP, Bulletin SP-5

    Major Ethnic Groups: 1901; 1931; 1961 (Graph)

  • Canada. Census. 1901: Vol 1, Table XI. 1931: Vol 2, Table 31. 1961: Vol 1, Pt 2, Table 35

    Population Profiles: 1901; 1931; 1961 (Graph)

  • Canada. Census. 1961. Vol 1, Pt 2, Table 20

    Urban and Rural Population: 1901; 1931; 1961 (Graph)

    Estimates of Newfoundland population were provided by Michael Staveley (Geography, Memorial University of Newfoundland). Canada.
  • Census. 1901-61. Various tables
  • Newfoundland. Census of Newfoundland and Labrador. Various years

    Population Growth, 1871-1961 (Graph)

  • Leacy. Historical Statistics. Series A67-9

    Further readings

  • Canada. Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. The Official Languages. Book 1. 1967.
  • Coons, W.H., Taylor, D.M., and Tremblay, M.A., eds. The Individual, Language and Society in Canada. Ottawa: The Canada Council, 1977.
  • Joy, Richard J. Languages in Conflict: the Canadian Experience. Toronto, McLelland and Stewart, 1972.
  • Lachapelle, Réjean, and Henripin, J. La situation démolinguistique au Canada: évolution passée et pros.
  • Montréal: Institut de recherches politiques, 1980. Also issued in English as The Demolinguistic Situation in Canada: Past Trends and Future Prospects, 1982.
  • Lieberson , Stanley. Language and Ethnic Relations in Canada. New York: Wiley, 1970.
  • Maheu, Robert. Les francophones du Canada: 1941-1991. Montréal: éditions parti pris, 1970.