Authors and Sources


Ecological Regions, ca 1500 CE (Volume I, Plate 17; Concise Plate n/i)
Descriptions of Ecological Regions (Volume I, Plate 17A; Concise Plate n/i)
J.H. McANDREWS Department of Botany, Royal Ontario Museum and University of Toronto
G.C. MANVILLE Department of Botany, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philidelphia


Ecological Regions, ca 1500 CE (Map)

Precipitation Ranges (Graph)

Radiation and Degree Day Ranges (Graph)

Seasonal Temperature Ranges (Graph)

  • Banfield, A.W.F. The Mammals of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974
  • Bailey, R.G. Descriptions of the Ecoregions of the United States. 1-77.
  • United States Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 139. 1980
  • Bryson, R.A., and F.K. Hare. 'The Climates of North America.' In R. A. Bryson and F.K. Hare, eds. World Survey of Climatology. Vol. 2: Climates of North America. 1-48. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1974
  • Godfrey, W.E. The Birds of Canada. Ottawa: National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1979
  • Handbook of North American Indians. Vol 6: Subarctic. Ed J. Helm. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1981
  • Handbook of North American Indians. Vol 15: Northeast. Ed B.G. Trigger. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1978
  • Hare, F.K., and J.E. Hay. 'The Climate of Canada and Alaska.' In World Survey of Climatology. Vol 2: Climates of North America. 49-192. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1974
  • Hare, F.K., and M.K. Thomas. Climate Canada. 2nd ed. Toronto: Wiley, 1979
  • Rostlund, E. 'Freshwater Fish and Fishing in Native North America.' University of California Publications in Geography 9 (1952): 1-313
  • Rowe, J.S. Forest Regions of Canada. Canadian Forestry Service Publication 1300. Ottawa: Department of Fisheries and Environment, 1972
  • We thank the following for their advice and criticism: Christine L. Caroppo, Edwin J. Crossman, Judith L. Eger, Ross D. James, and Deborah A. Metsger of the ROM; and William G. Dean, F. Kenneth Hare, James C. Ritchie, and Howard G. Savage of UT.

    Further Readings

  • Canada, Energy, Mines and Resources. The National Atlas of Canada. 4th ed, rev. Toronto: Macmillan, 1974
  • Crowley, J.M. 'Biogeography.' Canadian Geographer 9 (1967): 312-26
  • Scott, W. B., and E.J. Crossman. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 184. Ottawa: Department of Fisheries and Environment, 1973