Authors and Sources


The Quest for Universal Schooling, 1851-1891 (Volume II, Plate 1, Concise Plate 29)
ALISON PRENTICE History and Philosophy, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education


Unless otherwise indicated, data for all maps and graphs were taken from the annual reports of the various chief superintendents and ministers of education for the several British North American colonies to 1867, and for the provinces of Canada after that date. Where data were reported by municipal districts other than counties, these were amalgamated or incorporated into counties with the assistance of the Gazetteer of Canada.

  • Archives of Ontario. Manuscript Reports of the Township Superintendents. Wentworth County. 1866. RG2 F3B
  • Canada. Department of Mines and Technical Surveys. Gazetteer of Canada. Ottawa: 1961, 1962. Vols 9, 10

    Students in School: 1851; 1881 (MAP)

  • Canada. Census. 1851. Vol 1, pp 145-501
  • Canada. Census. 1871. Vol 4. Census of New Brunswick, 1851, pp 224-31; Census of Nova Scotia, 1851, pp 232-9
  • Canada. Census. 1881. Vol 1, table 1. Vol 2, table 13
  • Female Teachers in the Maritimes: 1851, 1871, 1891 (MAP)

  • Canada. Gazetteer of Canada. 1961. Vol 9
  • New Brunswick. Department of Education. Annual Reports. 1853, table C, p 28. 1871, App, table A, part 1, p x; table B, part 1, p xxx. 1891, part 2, table 4, pp A14-A15
  • Nova Scotia. Department of Education. Annual Reports. 1851, part (B), table 3, p 33. 1871, part 2, table 2, p B. 1891, part 2, table 2, p 4
  • Prince Edward Island. Department of Education. Annual Reports. 1851-2, pp 110, 114, 116, 123. 1869-70, no pagination. 1891, part 2, pp 2-35; app A, pp 39-55; app B, pp 56-62
  • Schools with Blackboards in Canada West: 1856; 1861; 1866 (MAP)

  • Prentice, Alison. The School Promoters: Education and Social Class in Mid-Nineteenth Century Upper Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977
  • Upper Canada. Department of Education. Annual Reports. 1856, 1861, 1866
  • Hamilton Central School, 1852 (ILLUSTRATION)

  • The floor plan is in the Archives of Ontario, Horwood Collection of Architectural Drawings and Related Material. The drawing of the frontal elevation is in the Hamilton Public Library.
  • School Registrations, 1851-1891 (GRAPH)

  • The figures for the total population of each province were drawn from the censuses of Canada. The relatively low registration in a province such as British Columbia may be accounted for, at least in part, by the fact that population totals included First Nation peoples whose children were rarely found in school.
  • Barman, Jean. 'The West Beyond the West: The Demography of Settlement in British Columbia.' Journal of Canadian Studies 25, no. 3 (1990): 5-18
  • Canada. Census. 1851-2, vols 1, 2. 1860-1, vols 1, 2. 1870-1, vols 1, 2, 3. 1880-1, vols 1, 2. 1890-1, vols 1, 2
  • Further Readings

  • Barman, Jean. 'Transfer, Imposition or Consensus? The Emergence of Educational Structures in Nineteenth-Century British Columbia.' In Nancy M. Sheehan, J. Donald Wilson, and David C. Jones, eds. Schools in the West: Essays in Canadian Educational History. Calgary: Detselig, 1986. Pp 241-64
  • Curtis, Bruce. Building the Educational State: Canada West, 1836-1871. London: Falmer Press/Althouse Press, 1988
  • Danylewycz, Marta, Beth Light, and Alison Prentice. 'The Evolution of the Sexual Division of Labour in Teaching: A Nineteenth Century Ontario and Quebec Case Study. Histoire sociale / Social History 16, no. 31 (1983): 81-109
  • Davey Ian E. 'Trends in Female School Attendance in Mid-Nineteenth Century Ontario.' In Ruby Heap and Alison Prentice, eds. Gender and Education in Ontario. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press, 1991. Pp 1-24
  • Dorion, Jacques. Les écoles de rang au Québec. Montréal: Les éditions de l'homme, 1979
  • Dumont, Micheline, and Nadia Fahmy-Eid. 'La pointe de l'iceberg: l'histoire de l'education et l'histoire de l'éducation de filles au Québec.' Historical Studies in Education / Revue d'histoire de l'éducation 3, no. 2 (1991): 211-36
  • Gaffield, Chad. Language, Schooling, and Cultural Conflict: The Origins of the French-Language Controversy in Ontario. Montréal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1987
  • Gaffield, Chad, and Gérard Bouchard. 'Literacy, Schooling, and Family Reproduction in Rural Ontario and Quebec.' Historical Studies in Education / Revue d'histoire de l'éducation 1, no. 2 (1989): 201-18
  • Gidney, R.D., and W.J.P. Millar. Inventing Secondary Education: The Rise of the High School in Nineteenth-Century Ontario. Montréal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1990
  • Houston, Susan E., and Alison Prentice. Schooling and Scholars in Nineteenth-Century Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988
  • McCann, Phillip. 'Class, Gender and Religion in Newfoundland Education, 1836-1901' Historical Studies in Education / Revue d'histoire de l'éducation 1, no. 2 (1989): 179-200
  • Prentice, Alison. 'The Feminization of Teaching in British North America and Canada, 1845-1875.' Histoire sociale / Social History 8, no. 15 (1975): 5-20
  • Prentice, Alison. ' "Friendly Atoms in Chemistry": Women and Men at Normal School in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Toronto.' In David Keane and Colin Read, eds. Old Ontario: Essays in Honour of J.M.S. Careless. Toronto: Dundurn, 1990. Pp 285-317
  • Prentice, Alison. 'From Household to School House: The Emergence of the Teacher as Servant of the State.' In Heap and Prentice, eds. Gender and Education in Ontario. 1991. Pp 25-46
  • Wilson, J. Donald, Robert M. Stamp, and Louis-Philippe Audet. Canadian Education: A History. Scarborough, Ont: Prentice-Hall, 1970