Authors and Sources


Migration (Volume III, Plate 27; Concise Plate 16)
MARVIN McINNIS Department of Economics, Queen's University

Special acknowledgment should be made to the important contribution of Michael Percy (Economics, University of Alberta) in the study of the Ontario origin of Prairie settlers.


Move to the West, 1891-1914 (Map)
Ontario Migration to the Prairies, 1901-1911 (Map)

These maps (originally one map in the published Atlas) are based on two separate bodies of evidence. The interprovincial movement of Canadian-born people was estimated directly from census data on province of birth, cross-tabulated with province of residence. For the Prairie Provinces the 1916 total of those born out of the province was derived from the census of that year. For other provinces the 1914 numbers were interpolated from the 1911 and 1921 censuses. The number of persons in each province of destination from each province of origin was compared with the 1891 number adjusted for survival over the 25-year period; the survival rates used were those from Bourbeau and Légaré (1982). Variations in the concentrations of Ontario-born settlers in the Prairie Provinces can be drawn directly from the 1916 census. Data on districts of origin within Ontario were based on a sample of Prairie newspaper obituaries (Mclnnis and Percy, 1989). For the calculations some Ontario counties/districts were grouped: Muskoka and Parry Sound, Peterborough and Haliburton, Frontenac and Addington, Leeds and Grenville, Brant and Wentworth.

  • Bourbeau, Robert, and Jacques Légaré. Évolution de la mortalité Canada au Québec, 1831-1931. Montréal: Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1982 Canada. Census. 1891: Vol 2, Table V. 1921: Vol 2, Table LIII
  • Bourbeau, Robert, and Jacques Légaré. Census of the Prairie Provinces. 1916. Table XXII
  • Mclnnis, Marvin, and Michael Percy. 'Dead Men Can Tell Tales: The Ontario Origins of Canadian Settlers on the Canadian Plains.' Unpublished report submitted to the Historical Atlas of Canada project, Vol III, 1989

  • Immigration to Canada, 1896-1914 (Map)

    Immigration to the Prairies, 1896-1914 (Map)

    The migration flows are based on changes in the numbers of foreign-born in Canada over the period between 1891 and 1914. The immigrant population in the 1921 census is tabulated by period of arrival so that post-1914 immigrants can be netted out. By covering the whole period in a net fashion a lower figure for immigration to Canada is derived, well below the cumulated annual inflow (graph of 'Immigrants to Canada'). Survival rates from the model life tables given in Bourbeau and Légaré (1982) for the twenty five year interval are applied to the number of foreign-born in 1891. For some areas the numbers shown on the flow lines do not correspond to the totals on the pie graphs because no specific flow lines are shown for the Asian population moving beyond British Columbia.

  • Bourbeau and Légaré. Évolution de la mortalité. 1982. Canada. Census 1891: Vol 1, Table V. 1921: Vol 2, Table XLII
  • Bourbeau and Légaré. Census of the Prairie Provinces. 1916. Table xlii
  • Canada Department of the Interior. Annual Report of the Deputy Minister. 1890-1914. Data for the plate compiled by Michael Percy
  • Percy, Michael B., and Tamara Woroby. 'American Homesteaders and the Canadian Prairies, 1899 and 1909.' Explorations in Economic History 24, no. 1 (Jan 1987): 77-100
  • Immigrants to Canada, 1891-1961 (Graph)

  • Urquhart and Buckley. Historical Statistics. Series A254
  • Asian Immigration, 1891-1931 (Graph)

  • Urquhart and Buckley. Historical Statistics. Series A333, A334, A335
  • Distribution of Immigrant Population, 1921 (Graph)

  • Canada. Census. 1921. Vol 2, Table XLI
  • Canadians Moving to the United States, 1890-1914 (Graph)
    Canadians Living in the United States, 1930 (Static Map)

  • Truesdell, Leon E. The Canadian Born in the United States. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1943. Table 40, Fig 8