1000 CIRCUMPOLAR DOMAIN

Dominated by Arctic air in winter and spring; mean July temperature 3-20° C; less than 1 300 degree-days in growing season; mean annual precipitation 100-1500 mm with summer maximum; evaporation from small lakes less than 200 mm per year

1200 ARCTIC DIVISION

Mean July temperatures under 12° C; net annual radiation 0-28 W/m 2 (watts per square metre). Dominated by Arctic air throughout the year. Regosols, brunisols, and rockland; permafrost continuous. Tundra

1210 TUNDRA PROVINCE

SOILS Cryic regosol with melanic brunisol in south
VEGETATION Tundra (graminoids, forbs, cushion plants, mosses, lichens), with shrubs in valleys and wetlands; trees in sheltered habitats in south
FAUNA Mammals Upland Barren-ground caribou, arctic hare, and muskox (except Quebec and Baffin Island). Marine Widespread: ringed seal, bearded seal, and beluga whale; Atlantic coast: walrus and seasonally harp seal, hooded seal, and bowhead whale; Beaufort Sea coast: walrus and bowhead whale
Birds Seasonal Snow goose, Canada goose, brant goose, eider duck, puffin, great auk. Resident Ptarmigan, grouse
Fish Staple (productivity less than 10). Freshwater Arctic char, white fish, lake trout, arctic cisco, grayling, inconnu, sucker, pike, burbot. Marine Herring, cod, halibut, smelt, saury, chub, perch (eel in Newfoundland)

1211 HIGH ARCTIC SECTION

LANDFORMS Plateaus, lowlands; elevation 0-600 m, average 100 m. Marine and till deposits. Fresh water 1%, wetlands less than 1%
VEGETATION Rock desert with cover less than 5% (mosses, lichens, avens, saxifrages, bell heather)

M1211 ELLESMERE-BAFFIN HIGHLANDS SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains, plateaus, uplands; elevation 0-2500 m, average 800 m. Extensive glaciers. Till deposits. Fresh water 1%, wetlands less than 1%
VEGETATION Rock desert (mosses, lichens, avens, saxifages, bell heather)

1212 MID-ARCTIC SECTION

LANDFORMS Lowlands, uplands, plateaus; elevation 0-400 m, average 100 m. Marine deposits in lowlands, till on eastern plateaus and uplands ( Banks Island unglaciated). Fresh water 6%, wetlands less than 1%
VEGETATION Stony lichen-heath (lichens with scattered blueberry, crowberry, Labrador tea, grasses, and sedges)

M1212 FROBISHER-TORNGAT HIGHLANDS SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains, uplands; elevation 0-700 m, average 500 m. Till on highlands, marine and lake deposits in lowlands. Fresh water 1%, wetlands less than 1%
VEGETATION Rock desert (lichens with woodrushes, sedges, avens, and saxifrages)

1213 LOW ARCTIC SECTION

LANDFORMS Uplands, plateaus, plains; flat; elevation 0-600 m, average 300 m. Till, marine, and lake deposits. Fresh water 9%, wetlands 3%
VEGETATION Shrub tundra (dwarf birch, alder, willow, Labrador tea, blueberry, lingonberry, crowberry, bluejoint, sedges, lichens, and mosses)

M1213 BROOKS RANGE SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains, highlands, hills; rugged; elevation 900- 3000 m, average 1500 m. Till. Fresh water 2%, wetlands 4%
VEGETATION Shrub tundra and wet tundra (dwarf birch, alder, willow, crowberry, Arctic blueberry, cranberry, cottongrass, bluejoint, bistort, mosses, lichens)

1214 TUNDRA WOODLAND SECTION

LANDFORMS Plains, uplands; flat; elevation 300-600 m, average 500 m. Till, marine, and lake deposits. Fresh water 10%, wetlands 12%
VEGETATION Tundra (dwarf birch, alder, willow, crowberry, Arctic blueberry, cranberry, cottongrass, lichens, mosses) interspersed with forest patches (black spruce, tamarack)

*1215 BERING TUNDRA SECTION

LANDFORMS Coastal plain rising eastward, locally rugged; elevation 0 -1 500 m, average 300 m. Fresh water over 10%
VEGETATION Wet tundra (sedges, cottongrass, dwarf birch, willow, alder). Valley woodland (white spruce, cottonwood, balsam poplar, alder)

1300 BOREAL DIVISION

Short, cool summers; mean July temperatures 11-20° C; net radiation 21-53 W/m 2 per year. Dominated by Arctic air in winter, non-Arctic air in summer. Podzols, organic soils, and brunisols. Permafrost wide­ spread in north. Spruce dominant

1310 LICHEN WOODLAND PROVINCE

SOILS Ferric-humic podzol, dystric brunisol, cryic fibrisol
VEGETATION Spruce forest in valleys, scattered spruce on exposed sites (black spruce prominent). Willow, dwarf birch, lichens, mosses on uplands.
FAUNA Mammals Woodland caribou, moose (except 1311), snow shoe hare, porcupine, beaver, Dall sheep (in M1313)
Birds Resident Spruce grouse, ruffed grouse. Transient Geese and ducks
Fish Staple (productivity 10-20). Freshwater Lake trout, whitefish, pike, sucker, burbot, salmon, grayling, cisco

1311 BLACK SPRUCE SECTION

LANDFORMS Plateaus, lowlands; flat to rolling, locally rugged; elevation 0-900 m, average 500 m. Till with marine clay in lowlands. Fresh water 9%, wetlands 4%
VEGETATION Woodland (black and white spruce, shrub birch, alder), and lowland bog (mosses, lichens, black spruce, Labrador tea)

1312 SPHAGNUM-BLACK SPRUCE SECTION

LANDFORMS Lowlands; flat; elevation 0-300 m, average 100 m. Marine and till deposits overlain by cryic fibrisols. Fresh water 3%, wetlands (fen, bog, salt marsh) 78%
VEGETATION Fens (sedges, peat mosses, hypnaceous mosses); bog (black spruce, shrub birch, alder, peat and hair-cap mosses); and salt marsh (glasswort, grasses). Forest along rivers (white spruce, balsam fir, aspen, balsam poplar, white birch)

1313 SPRUCE-TAMARACK SECTION

LANDFORMS Uplands, plains; flat; elevation 150-600 m, average 400 m. Shallow till. Fresh water 13%, wetlands (bog, muskeg) 12%
VEGETATION Black spruce, tamarack, alder, willow, shrub birch, reindeer lichens

M1313 MACKENZIE MOUNTAINS SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains, highlands; rugged; elevation 600-2400 m, average 1200 m. Local till. Fresh water less than 1%, wetlands 1%
VEGETATION Alpine (bell heather, sedge, bluegrass, avens, willow); conifer and shrub patches (white spruce, shrub birch, willow) in grassland (fescue)

1320 EASTERN BOREAL PROVINCE

SOILS Ferric-humic podzol and rockland
VEGETATION Forest (balsam fir, spruce)
FAUNA Mammals Moose, woodland caribou, white-tailed deer, snowshoe hare, beaver, porcupine
Birds Seasonal Common goldeneye, black duck. Resident Spruce grouse, ruffed grouse. Transient Canada goose
Fish Staple (productivity 20-30). Freshwater Lake trout, cisco, white fish, pike, sucker, walleye, burbot, salmon, brook trout, sturgeon, perch, sauger, eel. Marine Herring, cod, smelt, haddock, silver hake, mackerel, flounder, halibut, tom cod

1321 BALSAM FIR-SPRUCE SECTION

LANDFORMS Plains, highlands, hills, mountains; flat and rolling to rugged; elevation 0-900 m, average 400 m. Till, marine, lake deposits. Fresh water 5%, wetlands 4%
VEGETATION Balsam fir, red spruce, black spruce, white birch

1322 SPRUCE-BALSAM FIR SECTION

LANDFORMS Lowlands , uplands; flat, rolling; elevation 0-900 m, average 400 m. Till, lake deposits, outwash. Fresh water 8%, wetlands (fen, bog, muskeg, marsh) 12%
VEGETATION Black and white spruce, balsam fir, white birch

1330 CONTINENTAL BOREAL PROVINCE

SOILS Ferric-humic podzol, gray luvisol, and fibrisol
VEGETATION Forest (spruce, jack pine)
FAUNA Mammals Woodland caribou, moose, snowshoe hare, beaver, porcupine.
Birds Resident Spruce grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, ruffed grouse. Transient Ducks
Fish Staple (productivity 10-36). Freshwater Cisco, whitefish, pike, sturgeon, sucker, perch, walleye, burbot, brook trout, goldeye, smallmouth bass, sauger

1331 SPRUCE-JACK PINE-ASPEN SECTION

LANDFORMS Uplands; elevation 300-600 m, average 450 m. Till, lake deposits, outwash. Fresh water 8%, wetlands 8%
VEGETATION Black spruce, white birch, jack pine, aspen, white spruce, tamarack

1332 SPRUCE-JACK PINE SECTION

LANDFORMS Plains, uplands; rolling to rugged; elevation 150- 610 m, average 200 m. till. Fibrisols and luvisols in central part, podzols elsewhere. Fresh water 17%, wetlands (muskeg, marsh) 15%
VEGETATION Spruce, jack pine, tamarack

1333 JACK PINE-BLACK SPRUCE SECTION

LANDFORMS Plains; elevation 300-600 m, average 450 m. Till, local lake deposits. Fresh water 12%, wetlands 4%
VEGETATION Jack pine, black spruce

1340 WESTERN BOREAL PROVINCE

SOILS Grey luvisol, gleysol, fibrisol, and cryic fibrisol
VEGETATION Mixed-wood forest with prominent aspen or balsam poplar. Shrubs frequent
FAUNA Mammals Widespread Moose, snowshoe hare, beaver, porcupine. In north Woodland caribou. In south Bison, wapiti, white-tailed and mule deer
Birds Resident Spruce, sharp-tailed, and ruffed grouse
Fish Staple (productivity 10-20). Freshwater Lake trout, cisco, white fish, grayling, goldeye, pike, sucker, yellow perch, walleye, burbot, inconnu

1341 BLACK SPRUCE-TAMARACK-JACK PINE-POPLAR SECTION

LANDFORMS Plains; flat; elevation 150-300 m, average 200 m. Lake deposits. Fresh water 20%, wetlands (marsh, fen, muskeg) 22%
VEGETATION Black spruce, tamarack, jack pine, balsam poplar, willow, alder, blueberry, Labrador tea, sedge, peat moss

1342 ASPEN-SPRUCE SECTION

LANDFORMS Plains; flat except in east along Shield; elevation 150-900 m, average 600 m. Till, lake deposits, disintegration moraines. Fresh water 4%, wetlands (muskeg) 24%
VEGETATION Aspen, spruce, jack pine, balsam poplar, willow, alder, sedge, peat moss

1343 BLACK SPRUCE-ASPEN SECTION

LANDFORMS Plateaus, lowlands, plains; flat; elevation 150-900 m, average 300 m. Till, lake deposits. Fresh water 7%, wetlands (muskeg) 19%
VEGETATION Black spruce, aspen, white spruce, willow, alder, sedge, peat moss

1344 SPRUCE-POPLAR SECTION

LANDFORMS Plains; flat; elevation 0-310 m, average 150 m. Lake deposits, alluvium. Fresh water 7%, wetlands (muskeg) 19%
VEGETATION White spruce, balsam poplar, jack pine, willow, alder, peat moss

1350 CORDILLERAN BOREAL PROVINCE

SOILS Eutric brunisol, grey luvisol, and rockland
VEGETATION Spruce, lodgepole pine, birch forest
FAUNA Mammals Widespread Moose, snowshoe hare, beaver, porcupine. In south Woodland caribou, goat. In north Barren-ground caribou, Dall sheep
Birds Resident Spruce, blue, and ruffed grouse
Fish Unimportant (productivity less than 10); a staple along Yukon River in section 1352, with fauna as in 1210

1351 SPRUCE-LODGEPOLE PINE SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains, plateaus, plains, trenches; rugged; elevation 900-3000 m, average1000 m. Till, lake deposits. Fresh water 1%, wetlands 9%
VEGETATION Spruce, lodgepole pine

1352 WHITE SPRUCE-BIRCH SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains, plateaus; rugged; elevation 900-3000 m, average 1000 m. Mountain glaciers, till. Fresh water 4%, wetlands 1%
VEGETATION Plateaus and mountains (white spruce, white birch, alpine fir); alpine tundra (bell heather, willow, sedges, bluegrass, avens)

M1352 ALASKA RANGE SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains, trenches, lowlands; rugged; elevation 0-6800 m, average 2500 m. Fresh water 1%, wetland less than 1%
VEGETATION Valley forests (white spruce, cottonwood, black spruce bogs); upland forests (white spruce, birch, aspen, poplar); alpine tundra (avens, grasses, sedges); coastal fens (sedges, cotton grass, alder, willow)


M Mountainous section
* Ecological regions that are confined to the United States and/or modified from Bailey (1980)

 

 

DOMAIN

A subcontinental area of broadly similar climate. The three Canadian domains are distinguished by air-mass frequency, mean July temperature, degree days (accumulated number of degrees each day's temperature is above 5.6 C) in the growing season (number of days with an average temperature over 5.6 C), mean annual precipitation, season of maximum precipitation, and mean annual evaporation from small lakes.

DIVISION

A subdivision of a domain, defined by regional climate, soil order, extent of permafrost, and dominant vegetation

PROVINCE

A subdivision of a division, defined by soil groups, flora, and fauna. The mammals and birds listed are mainly those important for human subsistence. Fish are described by importance to native users (most important staple, staple, unimportant), by productivity in kg/km2 (kilograms per square kilometre), and by occurrence in fresh water or in the sea (marine).

SECTION

A subdivision of a province, defined by landforms, relief, elevation range and average, glacial and water deposits, percentage of fresh water and wetlands, and flora


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