2000 HUMID TEMPERATE DOMAIN

Dominated by maritime Pacific or tropical air masses at least in summer; mean July temperature 10-24°C; 900-2000 degree-days in growing season; mean annual precipitation 300 to over 2000 mm with maxima at various seasons; evaporation from small lakes 200-800 mm per year

2100 COOL TEMPERATE DIVISION

Mountainous west dominated by maritime Pacific air with winter precipitation maximum. From the Great Lakes eastward southern boundary approximates the mean winter position of Pacific air mass; net annual radiation 24-56 W/m 2. Podzols and luvisols. Glaciers and permafrost local in western mountains. Conifers dominate western forests; conifers and hardwoods form eastern mixed forest.

2110 GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE FOREST PROVINCE

SOILS Humic-ferric podzol, grey-brown and grey luvisols
VEGETATION Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
FAUNA Mammals In north Moose and snowshoe hare. In 2113 White-tailed deer, wapiti, and woodchuck. Widespread Black bear, beaver, porcupine
Birds Seasonal Passenger pigeon, black duck, sandhill crane, Canada goose. Resident Spruce and ruffed grouse. Transient Waterfowl
Fish Staple (productivity 70-175). Freshwater Trout, whitefish, sucker, sauger, walleye, eel, burbot, catfish, salmon, cisco, sturgeon, rainbow smelt, pike, muskellunge, perch, bass, drum. Marine Herring, cod, smelt, haddock, silver hake, mackerel, flounder, halibut, capelin

2111 PINE-SPRUCE-BIRCH SECTION

LANDFORMS Uplands; flat to undulating; elevation 300-600 m, average 450 m. Till, lake deposits. Fresh water 18%, wetlands (marsh, bog) 15%
VEGETATION White, red, and jack pine, spruce, birch, fir

2112 MAPLE-BIRCH-PINE SECTION

LANDFORMS Lowlands , uplands, highlands, hills; flat to undulating, locally rugged; elevation 0-600 m, average 300 m. Till, lake deposits, local outwash. Fresh water 11%, wetlands 1%
VEGETATION Sugar maple, yellow birch, white pine, red pine, spruce, fir, hemlock

2113 MAPLE-HEMLOCK SECTION

LANDFORMS Lowlands, plains; flat, locally rugged; elevation 100-600 m, average 300 m. Till, moraines, marine and lake deposits. Fresh water 19%, wetlands 1%
VEGETATION Sugar maple, beech, oak, hemlock, white pine

2114 SPRUCE-FIR-MAPLE SECTION

LANDFORMS Uplands, lowlands, mountains, highlands, hills; broad, rolling, locally rugged; elevation 0-900 m, average 400 m. Till, lake deposits. Fresh water 3%, wetlands 2%
VEGETATION Sugar maple, yellow birch, red spruce, balsam fir, hemlock, white pine

M2120 COLUMBIA-MONTANE FOREST PROVINCE

SOILS Grey luvisol, ferric-humic podzol, dystric brunisol, rockland
VEGETATION Forests , tundra, and grassland cover determined by local climates. Pine savannah (ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, lodgepole pine, aspen) at low elevation; subalpine forest (spruce, fir, lodgepole pine) and interior wet forest (western hemlock, western red cedar) at higher elevations; alpine tundra above tree line
FAUNA Mammals Widespread Moose, caribou, goat, mountain sheep, snowshoe hare, marmot, beaver, porcupine. In south White- tailed deer and wapiti
Birds Resident Willow ptarmigan, spruce, blue, and ruffed grouse. Transient Waterfowl
Fish Staple (productivity 140-175). Freshwater Salmon, trout, white- fish, sturgeon, chiselmouth, peamouth, squawfish, sucker, burbot

M2121 SPRUCE-ASPEN-LODGEPOLE PINE SECTION

LANDFORMS Plateaus, uplands; rolling to rugged with wide valleys; elevation 900-2400 m, average 1800 m. Till, lake deposits. Fresh water 1%, wetlands 1%
VEGETATION Subalpine forest (lodgepole pine, Douglas fir, aspen, white spruce); pine savannah (ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, wheat grass, fescue); grassland (wheatgrass, needlegrass, bluegrass)

M2122 CEDAR-HEMLOCK-DOUGLAS FIR SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains, highlands, foothills, plateaus, trenches; wide river valleys with broad plains; elevation 1 200-3050 m, average 2500 m. Till, alluvium. Fresh water 3%, wetlands 1%
VEGETATION Interior wet forest (western hemlock, western red cedar, Douglas fir); subalpine forest (Engelmann spruce, alpine fir, lodgepole pine); alpine tundra (sedges, grasses, willow, bell heather,

*M2123 DOUGLAS FIR SECTION

2200 TEMPERATE DIVISION

Mean July temperature over 20 °C; net annual radiation more than 53 W/m 2. Northern boundary at mean summer convergence of Pacific and tropical air masses. Hardwoods dominant

2210 DECIDUOUS FOREST PROVINCE

SOILS Grey-brown luvisol, humic gleysol
VEGETATION Hardwood forest
FAUNA Mammals White-tailed deer, wapiti, black bear, cottontail rabbit, woodchuck, beaver, porcupine
Birds Seasonal Passenger pigeon, black duck, mallard Resident Turkey , ruffed grouse. Transient Waterfowl
Fish Staple (productivity 35-105). Freshwater Lake trout, cisco, whitefish, sturgeon, mooneye, pumpkinseed, bass, pike, muskellunge, sucker, redhorse, perch, sauger, walleye, drum, eel, burbot, catfish, salmon, brook trout, goldeye

2211 BEECH-MAPLE SECTION

LANDFORMS Lowlands , plains; flat, rolling; elevation 0-600 m, average 350 m. Till, lake deposits. Fresh water 10%, wetlands 1%
VEGETATION Broadleaf forest (sugar maple, beech, hickory, oak, butternut, walnut, elm, ash)

*2212 MAPLE-BASSWOOD FOREST-OAK SAVANNAH SECTION

LANDFORMS Lowlands, plains; flat to hilly; elevation 300-500 m, average 300 m. Till, outwash
VEGETATION Broadleaf forest (sugar maple, basswood, oaks, and elm); on dry or fire-prone sites, grassland that contains bur oak or white oak, scattered singly or in groves

*2213 APPALACHIAN OAK SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains , plateaus; rolling to rugged; elevation 0- 1000 m, average 500 m
VEGETATION Broadleaf forest (white oak, red oak, red maple, sweet birch, hickory, chestnut, beech)

2400 PACIFIC MARITIME DIVISION

Freezing temperatures rare; Pacific air mass dominant; net annual radiation 26-53 W/m 2. Precipitation usually over 1 500 mm per year. Podzols, rockland. Conifers dominant

M2410 PACIFIC FOREST PROVINCE

SOILS Ferric-humic podzol
VEGETATION Forests of large conifers with undergrowth of heaths and ferns. Wet alpine tundra. Shoreline salt marshes and bogs
FAUNA Mammals Mule deer, mountain goat, whales, sea otter, sea lion, fur seal
Birds Seasonal Summer: cormorants, puffins, murrelets, guillemots; winter: waterfowl. Resident Blue grouse. Transient Ducks, geese, swans
Fish Most important staple (productivity 140-175). Freshwater Salmon, trout, sturgeon, squawfish, sucker, eulachon. Marine Halibut, herring, surf smelt, capelin, cod, torn cod, saury, chub, mackerel, tuna, perch, rockfish, flounder, sole. Mussels, urchins, clams

2411 CEDAR-HEMLOCK-DOUGLAS FIR-BIGLEAF MAPLE SECTION

LANDFORMS Lowland, plains with hills; elevation 0-460 m, aver­ age 100 m. Till, outwash, alluvium and lacustrine deposits
VEGETATION Coniferous forest (western and red cedar, Douglas fir, western hemlock, grand fir, and bigleaf maple) that includes areas of grassland and open stands of Douglas fir and Oregon white oak

M2411 SITKA SPRUCE-CEDAR-HEMLOCK SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains , highlands, foothills; rugged, dissected by fjords and inlets; elevation 0-3000 m, average 1800 m. Till. Local glaciers and permafrost
VEGETATION Pacific Coast forest (Douglas fir, western hemlock, western red cedar, yellow cedar); subalpine forest (mountain hem­lock, amabalis fir, alpine fir); alpine tundra (blueberries, grasses, sedges, mosses, liverworts); salt marshes (glasswort, grasses)

*M2413 COASTAL CEDAR-HEMLOCK-DOUGLAS FIR SECTION

LANDFORMS Mountains ; rugged; elevation 150-2500 m, average 1 500 m
VEGETATION Coniferous forest (western red cedar, western hem­ lock, Douglas fir, grand fir, Sitka spruce)

*M2415 SILVER FIR-DOUGLAS FIR SECTION

2500 PARKLAND DIVISION

Mean July temperature 17-20° C; net annual radiation 42-56 W/m 2. Chernozem. Aspen parkland

2510 PRAIRIE PARKLAND PROVINCE

SOILS Black chernozem
VEGETATION Forest groves in grassland matrix
FAUNA Mammals Bison, white-tailed deer, mule deer, wapiti, beaver, porcupine
Birds Seasonal Mallard, redhead, shoveller, gadwall, American widgeon, double-crested cormorant, white pelican. Resident Sharp-tailed grouse Transient Waterfowl, shorebirds
Fish Unimportant (productivity less than 10)

2513 ASPEN SECTION

LANDFORMS Plains; flat with gradual rise in elevation westward; elevation 300-600 m, average 450 m. Hummocky moraines, lake deposits. Fresh water 5%, wetlands 2%
VEGETATION Aspen at least 75% of forest cover; birch, spruce, balsam poplar present. Forest interspersed with prairie. Shrubs (saskatoons, chokecherry, rose, wolfberry) prominent. In west: aspen, white birch, needlegrass, fescue. In east: aspen, bur oak, hazel, wheatgrass, needlegrass


M Mountainous section
* Ecological regions that are confined to the United States and/or modified from Bailey (1980)

 

 

DOMAIN

A subcontinental area of broadly similar climate. The three Canadian domains are distinguished by air-mass frequency, mean July temperature, degree days (accumulated number of degrees each day's temperature is above 5.6 C) in the growing season (number of days with an average temperature over 5.6 C), mean annual precipitation, season of maximum precipitation, and mean annual evaporation from small lakes.

DIVISION

A subdivision of a domain, defined by regional climate, soil order, extent of permafrost, and dominant vegetation

PROVINCE

A subdivision of a division, defined by soil groups, flora, and fauna. The mammals and birds listed are mainly those important for human subsistence. Fish are described by importance to native users (most important staple, staple, unimportant), by productivity in kg/km2 (kilograms per square kilometre), and by occurrence in fresh water or in the sea (marine).

SECTION

A subdivision of a province, defined by landforms, relief, elevation range and average, glacial and water deposits, percentage of fresh water and wetlands, and flora


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