Authors and Sources


19th-century Images of Canada (Volume II, Plate 1; Concise Plate 29)
JOHN H. WADLAND Canadian Studies Program, Trent University
MARGARET HOBBS Women's Studies Program, Trent University

The authors are deeply indebted to the following for their assistance in the preparation of this plate: Andrew Birrell, François-Marc Gagnon, Fernand Harvey, Joy Houston, Joan Murray, Hellen Ostler, Mary Jane Penfold, Dennis Reid, Alan Toff, Helle Viirlaid, John Warkentin. Special thanks are accorded Joan Schwartz for permission to use her unpublished research to identify the locations of Frederick Dally photographs.

The Look of Domestic Building, 1891 (Volume II, Plate 6; Concise Plate 30)
PETER ENNALS Geography, Mount Allison University
DERYCK W. HOLDSWORTH Geography, Pennsylvania State University

Sources: 19th Century Images of Canada

Special Authors' Notes
The Authors of this plate wrote extensive notes on development of the visual arts and photography during this time period. These warrant a special page which can be accessed here, or by clicking on "Special" in the top bar menu of any of the Notes pages.

Sources for Paintings
  Number indicates location code on original printed atlas plates.
13 George Heriot. Chaudière Falls near Quebec. ca 1810. Watercolour over graphite on woven paper. Library and Archives Canada, Acc. No. R9266-269, Peter Winkworth Collection of Canadiana.
10 Peter Rindisbacher. Occupation of the Unfortunate Colonists within sight of a mass of ice of 5700 cubic [metres?], June 30, 1821. 1821. Watercolour and ink. National Archives of Canada. C-1905
8 Peter Rindisbacher. Winter Fishing on the Ice of the Assynoibain and Red River. 1821. Watercolour with pen and black ink on paper. National Archives of Canada. C-001932

Paul Kane (1810-1871). French River Rapids. 1845. Oil. Stark Museum of Art, Orange, Texas. 31.78/159, POP22

6 Paul Kane (1810-1871). Camping on the Prairie. 1845. Oil. Stark Museum of Art, Orange, Texas. 31.78/156, POP18
11 Frederick C. Lowe, after Lucius R. O'Brien. View of Cobourg. Ca 1852. Wood engraving on paper. From Anglo American Magazine ( Toronto), 2 (Feb 1853). Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library, J. Ross Robertson Collection. T 18073
16 W.G.R. Hind. Harvesting Hay, Sussex, New Brunswick. Ca 1880. Oil on commercial board. National Archives of Canada, Ottawa. C-103003
12 Lucius Richard O'Brien. Canadian 1832-1899. Among the Islands of Georgian Bay. 1886. Watercolour on paper. 26.7 x 39.4 cm. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto. Bequest of Mrs Florence L. Cody, 1951. T 260 1
3 Lucius Richard O'Brien. Through the Rocky Mountains, a Pass on the Canadian Highway. 1887. Watercolour on paper. Private collection, Toronto. Photograph courtesy of Art Gallery of Ontario.

Sources for Photographs
  Number indicates location code on original printed atlas plates.
1 Frederick Dally. Ox team at Clinton, Cariboo Road, BC. 1868. Photograph. Glenbow Archives, Calgary. NA-674-38
2 Charles Horetzky. Canadian Pacific Railway Survey. Hazelton. Forks of the Skeena River, 29 Dec 1872 . Photograph. Library and Archives Canada. PA-022575
5 Charles Horetzky. Peace River at Fort Dunvegan, October 4, 1872. 1872. Photo­graph. National Archives of Canada, W.J. Topley Collection. PA-9244
15 Alexander Henderson. Intercolonial Railway. On the Matapedia River. Ca 1872. Albumen print. National Archives of Canada, Sir Sandford Fleming Collection. PA-022071

Royal Engineers, George Dawson / North American Boundary Commission. Ox train at Dead Horse Creek, on their way West. Ca 1873. Photograph. National Archives of Canada, Dr Thomas Millman Collection. PA-74645

3 Alexander Henderson. Steel Bridge on the Canadian Pacific Railway, over the St. Lawrence River, at Lachine, near Montreal, by Dominion Bridge Co. Limited, Montreal. Ca 1880's. Photograph. Library and Archives Canada. PA-027638
4 J.B. Tyrrell. Eskimo camp on the barren land, NWT, 18 Aug 1894. Photograph. National Archives of Canada, Geological Survey of Canada Collection. PA-050939

Sources: The Look of Domestic Building, 1891

In spite of efforts to create a major machine-readable data base (the Canadian Inventory of Historical Buildings) it has not been possible so far to carry out a comprehensive detailed mapping of the thousands of buildings surviving from the 19th century. While some efforts have been made to formulate an appropriate classification system for house types which might be used in this process, there remains a good deal of disagreement on the principles of such a typology. Moreover, such an exercise risks overlooking the existence and the extent of a wide assortment of very ordinary 19th-century buildings that have not survived or that were not documented by contemporaries. The research for this plate arose from a careful reading of the existing literature on Canada's architectural history, coupled with extensive field observation. However, in the absence of a more scientific basis for analysis, the treatment is necessarily impressionistic.

Hall and parlour: The term hall refers to the 'great room' found at many scales in English housing during the medieval period and thereafter. This room was a multipurpose space in which cooking, dining, domestic manufacture, and sleeping took place. It should not be confused with the entry spaces or passage ways that are often called halls in the modern dwelling.

Further Readings: 19th Century Images of Canada


  • Bell, Michael. Painters in a New Land. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1973
  • Bovay, E.H. Le Canada et les Swisses, 1604-1974. Fribourg, Switzerland: Editions universitaires, 1976. This study contains a catalogue of the work of Peter Rindisbacher.
  • Gagnon, François-Marc. 'Painting and Sculpture.' In Paul-Andre Linteau et al. Quebec: A History, 1867-1929. Toronto: Lorimer, 1983. Pp 292-302, 552-63
  • Harper, J. Russell. William G.R. Hind, 1833-1889. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1976
  • Harper, J. Russell, ed. Paul Kane's Frontier, including Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971
  • Hind, Henry Youle. Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula, the Country of the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians. 2 vols. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green, 1863
  • Hind, Henry Youle. Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition of 1857 and of the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition of 1858. 2 vols. London: Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1860
  • Josephy, Alvin M. The Artist Was a Young Man: The Life Story of Peter Rindisbacher. Fort Worth, Texas: Amon Carter Museum, 1970
  • Lavallée, Omer. Van Horne's Road: An Illustrated Account of the Construction and First Years of Operation of the Canadian Pacific Transcontinental Railway. Montreal: Railfare Enterprises, 1974
  • McMann, Evelyn de R. Royal Canadian Academy of Arts: Exhibitions and Members, 1880- 1979. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981
  • Murray, Joan. Ontario Society of Artists: 100 Years. Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1972
  • Rees, Ronald. Land of Earth and Sky: Landscape Painting in Western Canada. Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1985 Reid, Dennis. Lucius R. O'Brien: Visions of Victorian Canada. Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1990
  • Rees, Ronald. 'Our Own Country Canada': Being an Account of the Principal Landscape Artists in Montreal & Toronto, 1860-1890. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1979
  • Thibault, Claude. L'art du paysage au Québec, 1800-1940. Quebec: Musée du Quebec, 1978
  • Walker, Doreen E. 'Some Early British Columbia Views and Their Photographic Sources.' The Beaver (Summer 1983): 44-51
  • Willistead Art Gallery of Windsor. Wiliam G.R. Hind: A Confederation Painter in Canada, text by J. Russell Harper. Windsor: The Gallery, 1967

  • Birrell, Andrew. Benjamin Baltzly: Photographs and journal of an Expedition through British Columbia. Toronto: Coach House Press, 1973
  • Birrell, Andrew. 'Fortunes of a Misfit: Charles Horetzky.' Alberta Historical Review 19 (Winter 1971): 9-25
  • Cavell, Edward, journeys to the Far West: Accounts of the Adventurers in Western Canada, 1858-1885. Toronto: Lorimer, 1979. This study contains many fine examples of images captured by Dally, Dossetter, and others.
  • Deville, Edouard. Photographic Surveying: Including the Elements of Descriptive Geometry and Perspective. Ottawa: Survey Office, 1889
  • Fleming, Sandford. The Intercolonial: A Historical Sketch of the Inception, Location, Construction and Completion of the Line of Railway Uniting the Inland and Atlantic Provinces of the Dominion, with Maps and Numerous Illustrations. Montreal: Dawson Brothers, 1876
  • Grant, George Monro. Ocean to Ocean: Sandford Fleming's Expedition through Canada in 1872. Toronto: J. Campbell, 1873
  • Grant, George Monro, ed. Picturesque Canada: The Country As It Was and Is. Illustrated under the supervision of L.R. O'Brien, with over 500 engravings on wood. 2 vols. Toronto: Belden Brothers, 1882. Picturesque Canada was released in 36 parts between Jan 1882 and Sep 1884; gathered, bound copies were not available until 1884.
  • Green, Lewis. The Boundary Hunters. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1982 Greenhill, Ralph, and Andrew J. Birrell. Canadian Photography, 1839-1920. Toronto: Coach House Press, 1979
  • Hart, EJ. The Selling of Canada: The CPR and the Beginnings of Canadian Tourism. Banff: Altitude Publishing, 1983
  • Horetzky, Charles. Canada on the Pacific: An Account of a Journey from Edmonton to the Pacific by the Peace River Falls and of a Winter Voyage along the Western Coast of the Dominion that Remarks on the Physical Features of the Pacific Railway Route and Notations of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia. Montreal: Dawson Brothers, 1874
  • Horetzky, Charles. 'Report on Explorations from Douglass, Gardner and Dean Inlets, Eastward in the Cascade Mountains.' In Sandford Fleming, Report on Surveys and Preliminary Operations on the Canadian Pacific Railway up to January, 1877. Ottawa: MacLean, Roger and Co, 1877. Pp 137-44
  • Huyda, Richard J. Camera in the Interior, 1858: H.L. Hime, Photographer. The Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition. Toronto: Coach House Press, 1975
  • Inglis, Alex. Northern Vagabond: The Life and Career of J.B. Tyrrell. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1978 Koltun, Lilly, ed. Private Realms of Light: Amateur Photography in Canada, 1839-1940. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1984
  • McKenzie, Karen, and Mary F. Williamson. The Art and Pictorial Press in Canada: Two Centuries of Art Magazines. Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1979
  • Martin, William T. Mower, and Wilfred Campbell. Canada. London: A. and C. Black, 1907
  • Moritz, Albert. Canada Illustrated: The Art of Nineteenth Century Engraving. Toronto: Dreadnaught, 1982
  • Parker, George L. The Beginnings of the Book Trade in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985
  • Pringle, Allan. 'William Cornelius Van Horne, Art Director, Canadian Pacific Railway.' Journal of Canadian Art History 8, no. 1 (1984): 50-79
  • Schwartz, Joan M. 'The Past in Focus: Photography and British Columbia, 1858-1914.' BC Studies 52 (Winter 1981-2): 5-15
  • Schwartz, Joan M. 'The Photographic Record of Pre-Confederation British Columbia.' Archivaria 5 (Winter 1977-8): 17-44
  • Schwartz, Joan M., and Lilly Koltun. A Visual Cliché: Five Views of Yale.' BC Studies 52 (Winter 1981-2): 113-28
  • Triggs, Stanley G. 'Alexander Henderson: Nineteenth-Century Landscape Photographer.' Archivaria 5 (Winter 1977-8): 45-59
  • Triggs, Stanley G. William Notman: The Stamp of a Studio. Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario and Coach House Press, 1985
  • Further Readings: The Look of Domestic Building, 1891

  • Butterfield, David K., and Edward M. Ledohowski. Architectural Heritage and the Brandon and Area Planning District. Winnipeg: Department of Culture, Heritage and Recreation, 1984
  • Ennals, Peter, and Deryck W. Holdsworth. 'Vernacular Architecture and the Cultural Landscape of the Maritime Provinces: A Reconnaissance.' Acadiensis 10 (Spring 1981): 86-105
  • Gowans, Alan. Building Canada: An Architectural History of Canadian Life. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1966
  • Lessard, Michel, and Huguette Marquis. Encyclopedie de la maison québécoise. Mont-réal: Les Editions de l'homme, 1974
  • MacRae, Marion. The Ancestral Roof: Domestic Architecture of Upper Canada. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1963
  • Mannion, John J. Irish Settlement in Eastern Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974
  • Mills, David. The Development of Folk Housing in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland.' In John J. Mannion, ed. The Peopling of Newfoundland: Essays in Historical Geography. St John's: Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1977
  • Rempel, John I. Building with Wood and Other Aspects of Nineteenth-Century Building in Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967
  • Segger, Martin, and Douglas Franklin. Victoria: A Primer for Regional History in Architecture. Watkins Glen, NY: American Life Foundation, 1979
  • Wonders, William C., and Mark A. Rasmussen. 'Log Buildings of West Central Alberta.' Prairie Forum 5 (1980): 197-217