Territorial Timeline: 1763-1791

1763 France yields Louisiana, New France, Île Royal and Île Saint-Jean
By the Treaty of Paris France cedes Louisiana to Spain, and all of her other territory in North America (New France, Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) and Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island)) to Great Britain.

1763 Britain yields Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Islands
By the Treaty of Paris Britain cedes Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Islands to France. Several times between 1763 and 1815 Britain occupies or reclaims these islands. The authority of France has been uninterrupted since 1816.

1763 Britain enlarges Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, creates Québec
The Royal Proclamation describes the boundaries of Québec; assigns to Newfoundland the Labrador coast together with the Anticosti and Madeleine Islands. Lands not contained within defined British colonies are "reserved for the... Indians". Also by the Royal Proclamation, Britain annexes Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) and Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island) to Nova Scotia."

1769 St. John's Island separates
St John's Island is established as a separate colony after absentee landlords petition for separation from mainland Nova Scotia.

1774 Québec enlarged
By the Québec Act, Québec is enlarged to include Labrador, Anticosti and Madeleine Islands, as well as the land previously reserved for Native people both north and west to Rupert's Land and to the southwest to the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.

1783 Britain recognizes the USA
By the Treaty of Paris, Great Britain recognizes the independence of the United States. Boundaries between the USA and British North America from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake of the Woods are described (imperfectly).

1784 Cape Breton becomes a colony
Great Britain establishes a colonial government in Cape Breton.

1784 New Brunswick becomes a colony
Great Britain establishes a colonial government in New Brunswick.

1784 Russia claims Alaska
Grigori Shelikhov establishes a village on Kodiak Island and claims adjoining coast for Russia.

1790 Northwest coast open for occupation
By the Nootka Convention, the northwest coast is opened up to occupation by any country.

1791 Upper and Lower Canada created
By a Constitutional Act, Great Britain divides Québec into two separate colonies, Lower Canada (along the lower St Lawrence) and Upper Canada (along the upper St Lawrence and beyond).